Posted in Computer Science, Education

Quantum Computing

What is it?

Quantum computing studies computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.

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  • Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states rather than encoding of data into bits.
  • A Quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer, and is also known as the universal quantum computer.

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  • It takes advantage of the strange ability of subatomic particles to exist in more than one state at any time. Due to the way the tiniest of particles behave, operations can be done much more quickly and use less energy than classical computers.

 How it is useful?

Quantum computers uses qubits which are combination of bits. Consider an electron that either in the position of Stop(0) or on motion(1). This is the principle followed by our computers. But in quantum computers, a new state is introduced called Superposition. It is the state where both 0 and 1 exists  at the same time. Therefore, the cases in which the inputs will be are 00, 01, 10 and 11.

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Now we can see that one qubits can hold information of 2 bits. This is interesting right? Also, another interesting matter between these bits is the concept of Entanglement. It is the concept in which both the classical bits in a single quantum bit is connected. In simple words, two classical bits in a quantum bit is subject to change if one of its pair changes.

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Why it is not replaced?

Qubits do not make the things work faster but it make multiple things to work faster when combined.

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The speed of a classical computer and quantum computer is same on opening a MS word document but the speed of quantum computer won’t be slow on editing 50 MS Word documents which makes the classical computers slow.

Is it existing?

Yes. Quantum computers are not different in physical structure but it is a processor.

download (5)          NASA and Google are currently using quantum computers for their research and development purposes. D’ WAVE is the quantum computing company who were in research on making computers to think.images (12)

Quantum computers are made to solve unanswerable question like ‘what is the factorial of 500?’ or ‘Are we alone?’. Next time, when you see a quantum computer just don’t forget to ask a question to it.

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From,

Maria Irudaya Regilan J

 

 

 

 

 

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Happy New Year 2018 from ‘Regins’

Bells ring on churches, elders giving me sweets, friends greet, calendar changes, children screams happy new year.

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On this wonderful occasion, Regins is thankful to all its followers, people helping in comment section, following JRT Institute and to all the people helping us. As like our past year, we are working to post latest updates and news based on ProgrammingOnline TricksJRT Institute & Tamil Nadu Board ExamsComputer Science and Education. Stay connected with us.

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We wish all our friends and followers Happy New Year and we pray to god that this new year should bring you happiness all the 12 months and should make your sorrows vanish.

Happy New Year from the team Regins.

From,

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Maria Irudaya Regilan J

(ECA at Regins)

Posted in Computer Science, Education

Normalization in DBMS

Normalization

Normalization is the process that improves a database design by generating relations that are of higher normal forms

First Normal Form (1 NF)

1 NF is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form iff the domain of each attribute contains only atomic values, and the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain.

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Example

Explanation

No two rows of data must contain repeating group of information i.e., each set of column must have a unique value, such that multiple columns cannot be used to fetch the same row. Each row should have a primary key that distinguishes it as unique.

Second Normal Form (2 NF)

2 NF is a normal form used in database normalization. a table that in 1 NF must meet additional criteria if it is to qualify for 2 NF.

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Example

Explanation

As per 2 NF, there must be not any partial dependency of any column on primary key. It means that for a table has concatenated primary key, each column in the table that is not a part of primary key must depend upon the entire concatenated key for its existence. If any column depends only on one part of the concatenated key, then the table fails 2 NF.

Third Normal Form (3 NF)

A relation is in third NF if it is in 2 NF and no non key attribute is transitively dependant on the primary key.

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Example

Explanation

3 NF applies that every non prime attribute of table must be dependant on primary or we say that there should not be the case that a non prime attribute is determined by another non prime attribute. So, this transitive dependency should be removed from the table and also the table must be in 2 NF.

Boyce – Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

BCNF is an higher version of 3 NF. This form deals with certain type of anomaly that is not handled by 3 NF. A 3 NF table which does not have multiple overlapping candidate keys. For BCNF, following conditions must be satisfied,

  • Relationship ‘ R ‘ must be in 3 NF
  • for each functional dependency (X -> Y), X should be a super key

Consider the following relationship: R(A, B, C, D) and following dependencies:

A -> BCD

BC -> AD

D -> B

Above relationship is already 3 NF, keys are A and BC. Hence, in the functional dependency, A -> BCD, A is the super key. In the 2nd relationship, BC -> AD, BC is also a key but in D -> B, D is not a key.

Here we can break our relationship R into two relationships R1 and R2:

Breaking table into two tables, one with ADC while other with DB

Fourth Normal Form (4 NF)

4 NF is the level of database normalization where there are no non trivial multivalued dependencies other than a candidate key. It builds on the first three normal forms and BCNF.

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Example

Explanation

An entity must be in BCNF. If an attribute is based on value, list must be taken out as a separate entity.

Fifth Normal Form (5 NF)

5 NF also known as project join normal form i.e., PJNF is a level of database normalization designed to reduce redundancy in relational databases recording multivalued facts by isolating semantically related multiple relationships.

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Example

Explanation

An entity must be in 4 NF. If an attribute is combined with repeated values then it must be taken out as a separate entity.

 

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From,

Maria Irudaya Regilan J

Posted in Education, JRT Institute, Online Tricks, Programming

Computer Computations

Commonly operated machine particularly used for Trade, Education and Research is the simple definition of computer thought to me on my school days. Computers made our jobs easier to finish. We use it almost everywhere. We know that computers only understand binary numbers i.e., 0‘s and 1‘s. So, these computers are also called “Binary Computers”. Let us take a look on it and its further improvements.

Binary Computers

A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or other data using any two-symbol system, but often the binary number system‘s 0 and 1. The binary code assigns a pattern of binary digits (bits) to each character, instruction.

binary

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII),uses a 7-bit binary code to represent text and other characters within computers, communications equipment, and other devices. Each letter or symbol is assigned a number from 0 to 127.

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Advantages

  • This can be easily represented by electronic devices and for which calculation can be carried out using reasonably simple active electronics.
  • Binary data is also reasonable simple to store – again only needing a two state storage (on/off – 1/0).

Disadvantages

  • Difficult to read.
  • takes a lot of digits to represent any reasonable number.
  • rounding off numbers is the main problem.

Ternary Computers

ternary computer (also called trinary computer) is a computer that uses ternary logic (three possible values) instead of the more common binary logic (two possible values) in its calculations.

ternary

Ternary computing is commonly implemented in terms of balanced ternary, which uses the three digits −1, 0, and +1. The negative value of any balanced ternary digit can be obtained by replacing every + with a − and vice versa. It is easy to subtract a number by inverting the + and − digits and then using normal addition. Balanced ternary can express negative values as easily as positive ones, without the need for a leading negative sign as with decimal numbers. These advantages make some calculations more efficient in ternary than binary. Considering that digit signs are mandatory, and non zero digits are magnitude 1 only, notation using only zero and signs alone is more concise than when 1’s are used.

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With the advent of mass-produced binary components for computers, ternary computers have diminished in significance. The Josephson junction has been proposed as a balanced ternary memory cell, using circulating superconducting currents, either clockwise, counterclockwise, or off. The advantages of the proposed memory circuit are capability of high speed computation, low power consumption and very simple construction with fewer elements due to the ternary operation. In 2009, a quantum computer was proposed which uses a quantum ternary state, a qutrit, rather than the typical qubit. When the number of basic states of quantum element is d, it is called qudit.

qubit

Advantages

  • The advantages of using ternary logic is to do our computing would be that we can hold the same amount of information in less memory, and we can process more information at once.

Disadvantages

  • Ternary computing relies on three-state “trits” rather than two-state bits.

Quaternary Computers

Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers.

quaternary

Quantum computers are still binary – “quantum binary”, they can have arbitrary superpositions of 0 and 1. 0 and 1 are special cases of a superposition.

 

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From,

Maria Irudaya Regilan J

Posted in Computer Science, Education

Skype’s Real-Time Code Editor For Coding Interviews

Skype, the most popular video calling platform, recently launched a new preview feature at Skype.com that makes the tiresome task of switching between the interviewer’s call and the code editor more easy and allows to comfortably conduct coding and technical interviews.

The new feature will allow the user to host a video call on top of a code editor that runs in the Microsoft Edge or Chrome browser (version 32 or above). This means that the users need not to download any applications and can access Skype.com on their browsers.

Watch the promotion video made by skype.

The built-in code editor currently supports seven programming languages: C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Python, and Ruby. Syntax highlighting will be included for all these languages, along with a real-time execution feature to help prevent syntactic mistakes during an interview.

Currently, the new interview feature only works for browsers whose default language is set to English. For those interested in trying out the new platform, can go over to Skype’s interviews website and click on “Start Interview,” then invite someone to the call and begin the interview – all with a real-time code editor.

From,

Maria Irudaya Regilan J