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**o**perated**m**achine**p**articularly**u**sed for**T**rade,**E**ducation and**R**esearch*is the simple definition of computer thought to me on my school days. Computers made our jobs easier to finish. We use it almost everywhere. We know that computers only understand binary numbers i.e.,*

*. So, these computers are also called*

**0**‘s and**1**‘s*. Let us take a look on it and its further improvements.*

**“Binary Computers”**## Binary Computers

A binary code represents text, **computer processor instructions**, or **other** data using any two-symbol **system**, but often the **binary number system**‘s 0 and 1. The binary code assigns a **pattern** of binary digits (**bits**) to each character, instruction.

The American Standard **Code** for Information Interchange (ASCII),**uses** a 7-bit **binary code** to represent text and other characters within computers, communications equipment, and other **devices**. Each letter or symbol is assigned a number from 0 to 127.

#### Advantages

- This can be easily represented by electronic devices and for which calculation can be carried out using reasonably simple active electronics.
- Binary data is also reasonable simple to store – again only needing a two state storage (on/off – 1/0).

#### Disadvantages

- Difficult to read.
- takes a lot of digits to represent any reasonable number.
- rounding off numbers is the main problem.

## Ternary Computers

A **ternary computer** (also called **trinary computer**) is a computer that uses ternary logic (three possible values) instead of the more common binary logic (two possible values) in its calculations.

Ternary computing is commonly implemented in terms of balanced ternary, which uses the three digits −1, 0, and +1. The negative value of any balanced ternary digit can be obtained by replacing every + with a − and vice versa. It is easy to subtract a number by inverting the + and − digits and then using normal addition. Balanced ternary can express negative values as easily as positive ones, without the need for a leading negative sign as with decimal numbers. These advantages make some calculations more efficient in ternary than binary. Considering that digit signs are mandatory, and non zero digits are magnitude 1 only, notation using only zero and signs alone is more concise than when 1’s are used.

With the advent of mass-produced binary components for computers, ternary computers have diminished in significance. The Josephson junction has been proposed as a balanced ternary memory cell, using circulating superconducting currents, either clockwise, counterclockwise, or off. The advantages of the proposed memory circuit are capability of high speed computation, low power consumption and very simple construction with fewer elements due to the ternary operation. In 2009, a quantum computer was proposed which uses a quantum ternary state, a qutrit, rather than the typical qubit. When the number of basic states of quantum element is *d*, it is called qudit.

#### Advantages

- The advantages of using ternary logic is to do our computing would be that we can hold the same amount of information in less memory, and we can process more information at once.

#### Disadvantages

- Ternary computing relies on three-state “trits” rather than two-state bits.

## Quaternary Computers

**Quaternary** is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers.

Quantum computers are still binary – “quantum binary”, they can have arbitrary superpositions of 0 and 1. 0 and 1 are special cases of a superposition.

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From,

Maria Irudaya Regilan J